Home-grown orchids are incredibly beautiful and noble plants. You can verify this by simply looking at the photo. Their long and lush flowering makes you wonder how to propagate an orchid at home and enjoy its beauty all the time. This requires a specific, but very simple care, which can be mastered even by novice florists.
Orchid breeding rules
To propagate an orchid yourself, you will have to meet a number of conditions:
- Such manipulations are best carried out immediately after the completion of flowering when the orchid has enough strength and reserves for reproduction.
- The flower must be completely healthy. It should not be mold, rot and yellow leaves.
- Flower reproduction should be carried out in hygienically impeccable conditions. All slices need to be disinfected. To do this, fit the usually activated carbon, available in each home first aid kit.
In addition, those wishing to increase the number of orchids in the house must provide them with suitable conditions. These plants prefer high humidity, reaching 80% and temperatures, ranging from 18-30 ° C.
Orchids can be propagated in two ways:
- sexually (generative), that is, directly by the seeds;
- asexual (vegetative), with the help of cuttings, processes, and peduncles.
The sexual way is quite problematic to carry out at home. Since orchid seeds resemble pollen, their collection and planting is an extremely difficult task. In addition, the seeds do not have a protective layer and nourishing tissues, so they often simply dry out. For reproduction by seeds, it is necessary to observe perfect thermal conditions and complete sterility.
The result of such reproduction will be noticeable after 9 months. A full-fledged seed plant will be formed only in 3-4 years. Therefore, it is better to propagate domestic orchids by vegetative means, implying several radically different methods.
What is the easiest way to propagate a homemade orchid?
The most accessible method of reproduction is a simple division of the bush. The only condition for performing such manipulations is a sufficient flowerage, the presence of a large number of leaves and a rich root system.
Reproduction by division: step by step instructions
- The division is performed by a horizontal (for monopodial) or vertical (for sympodial) incision with a construction knife with a thin and sharp blade. For example, Phalaenopsisili Wanda, having only one growth point, should be divided horizontally, leaving at least 3-4 leaves and roots on each part. But Dendrobium or Cattle, having several points of growth, must be cut vertically so that each flower has several pseudobulbs and its own roots.
- After dividing the bush, it is necessary to process the cuts with coal from the home first-aid kit, or simply let them dry in a bright, shaded area during the day.
- Then all the resulting flowers can be planted in the familiar substrate. Rooting and full recovery after reproduction in this way will take about a month.
However, with this method of reproduction, there are certain risks. Cutting the bush can damage the outlet, and non-observance of sterile conditions can lead to the development of infection, the appearance of rot and mold, which is likely to lead to the death of the plant.
Another, no less popular breeding method is grafting. However, in this case, it is important to choose the right time: you need to wait until the flowering is complete, but do not miss the moment when the orchid will begin to self-dry the peduncle.
The step-by-step briefing includes the following items:
- It is necessary to cut off the flowered tsvetonos, departing 1-2 cm from the outlet.
- Divide it into pieces by making incisions between dormant buds.
- Sections should be made at a distance of 2-4 cm from the kidneys.
- To stimulate arousal, it is necessary to impose a cytokinin (hormonal) paste on the kidneys.
- Fold the cuttings in the greenhouse with moss on the bottom.
- Maintain high humidity by spraying cuttings daily.
The result of reproduction will be noticeable after 1-2 months. It is possible to remove cuttings into the bark when independent sockets with roots 3-5 cm long will appear in the nodules.
Reproduction of orchids in a natural way
All of the above methods, one way or another, are associated with injury to the mother flower, after which he will need some time to recover. In order not to disturb the life cycle of a home orchid, you can wait for its natural reproduction.
To do this, you only need to properly care for the plant, providing the necessary watering, nutrition, and the correct temperature. And then a healthy flower, undoubtedly, will give you its exact copy – “baby”. The shoot may appear on the peduncle and directly on the outlet. Its appearance can be stimulated by inflicting cytokinin paste on the kidneys after completion of flowering.
To enhance the effect, it is recommended to attach moss and build a mini-hothouse to the intended breeding site. This will maintain the high humidity necessary for the appearance of roots. It is possible to separate a baby from the mother flower only after the appearance of at least one root in it. This should be done very carefully, using sharp and thin scissors or a blade.
How to care for orchids after reproduction
The young flower obtained as a result of reproduction will be in the phase of active growth. Therefore, it should begin to feed on the sheet. For the earliest possible appearance of roots and good nutrition, you need to use fertilizers containing nitrogen.
When the roots reach a length of 5 cm, you can proceed to the separation and planting. To plant a young orchid should be in a small pot with good ventilation. It is better to use the bark of the small fraction, which has a higher moisture capacity, as well as moss, which prevents drying.
Keep a home flower is recommended in a bright, shaded and ventilated place without strong drafts. It should be watered more often than an adult orchid – every other day.