A bouquet of roses is a classic version of a gift for all occasions, from a simple compliment or token to congratulations on your wedding or anniversary. Many women do not perceive roses at all as an independent gift, but only as an accompaniment to something more valuable and durable. Surprise and at the same time please even the most capricious or indifferent to the colors of the girl can, giving her an unusual blue rose. Such a flower, as if grown in the forbidden gardens of the Snow Queen, can be created at home. The simple, but fascinating and visual process of transforming an ordinary bed into a magical one is also suitable for joint leisure with a child. How to paint a rose blue and what is needed for this? Read more
The first date is an exciting and intriguing moment, a possible beginning of further romantic relationships. Often, in such cases, the initiative belongs to the men, they plan to go where and wonder how to surprise and what to give the girl on the first date to make a good impression on her. Read more
In August, the golden age begins for the flowering of long-awaited plants that will please us with their beauty until the fall. Flowers in August give this month unique colors and aroma, they are actively used in floral ensembles to celebrate a birthday, congratulate each other on professional holidays and celebrate lavish weddings.
Flowering plants of the last summer month
All summer we look forward to such bright and luxurious representatives of the flora of the last summer month:
- Chrysanthemums are adorable representatives of the flora, which are also in other seasons in floristic shops, but these are imported plants. We are dearer to ourselves, with a smell and a magnificent terry inflorescence. Each year, we see all the new varieties of these gifts of nature – white, green, pink, cream – which shades do not.
- Eustoma is another beautiful August. This is the second wave of the flowering of this plant. The first was in June and, by the end of the summer, she again makes us happy with her beauty. The second flowering is not so abundant, and the inflorescence is already smaller, but this plant has not lost its charm. The variety of shades allows creating unique ensembles from these gifts of nature – from cold to saturated warm.
- Alstroemeria – a representative of the flora, which at the end of summer also blooms a second time. It is called in different ways – a miniature lily, a garden orchid, but as it is not called, this flower simply conquers its stamina and charm. Alstroemeria can be added to any buds, especially since it looks good with small roses, creating truly luxurious ensembles.
- Roses are the most magnificent plants of all time. They are good in any color combinations, different sizes and for many reasons. There is not a single person who would be indifferent to these representatives of the flora. Rosa has always admired, admired her, grew and gave each other as a symbol of love and respect, worship and passion.
- Many flower lovers are looking forward to the end of summer to enjoy the flowering of another flower – dahlia. Flowering flowers in August, which have a variety of varieties and colors, make this plant desired at every home plot. Terry large inflorescences of this representative of the flora have won the love of many. They also look good in cutting in mono books and complex bouquets.
- Another magnificent flower of August is the gladiolus. A high arrow, strewn with inflorescences and buds, which will certainly bloom, even if the gladiolus is cut. A symbol of military glory and victory, the gladiolus is loved by many florists, and they gladly bred these flowers on their site.
August as a symbol of abundance
Another feature of August is the abundance of fruits and berries this month. Bouquets are accepted to complement the gifts of gardens and orchards. This can be as voluminous baskets full of apples, pears, raspberries and strawberries of repair varieties, neighboring with representatives of the flora, as well as floral compositions in traditional packaging with the addition of spices, berries, and leaves of the trees, starting to turn yellow.
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Holidays of the third month of summer
In August, many professional holidays, birthdays and weddings. But there are holidays that celebrate everything, regardless of the profession and the day of their birth. In August we celebrate three big church holidays:
- Honey rescue, which is celebrated on the 14th;
- Apple saved, which is celebrated on the 19th;
- On the 29th there is a nut or bread salmon, which occurs at the time of ripening of the hazelnut and the end of harvesting of cereals;
Making a bouquet
The last month of summer still promises us hot summer days, but cool nights and fresh morning shows indicate that the seasons are inevitable, and we must hurry to enjoy the gifts that August prepared for us.
It is not just to collect and give flowers. It is a very important packaging and presentation method. When decorating a flower arrangement, it is necessary to take into account who it is intended for. The design of the bouquet for women and men takes place in different ways.
At the packaging of a female composition, the packing material of bright colors is used. Various accessories are used in the form of beads, artificial dragonflies, and butterflies. In addition, various bows, lace, and braid are actively used in the design of women’s bouquets. These accessories create a special charm and charm of summer heat and an abundance of flowering plants.
The use as decoration of baskets and hat boxes focuses on the female belonging of the flower arrangement. Today, floristic stores offer a huge selection of these decor elements of floral ensembles.
Men’s bouquets differ in that the bouquets themselves seem to be stretched upwards, the lines of composition are strict and laconic. In order to design a man’s composition, use a single-color packaging material, kraft paper, burlap sacks are also suitable. But accessories do not use at all. In order to bind the stems of the bouquet, apply the tow.
Today in fashion, natural materials and a natural look of the composition, slightly disheveled, as if assembled in a hurry. Also, following this trend, natural shades of petals are appreciated. These features should be considered when creating a flower presentation.
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Indoor plants not only decorate the interior, but also improve the mood. Growing flowers and other plants is a real art that requires patience, attention and the necessary knowledge. There are a large number of plants for growing inside the house, but there are several kinds that are very popular with many growers and amateurs. On the site https://getpotted.com/, there are seedlings of many plants that you can buy for home planting. You can be sure that here you buy a good and healthy plant that will please your family with its beauty.
There are 10 most popular plants that can grow at home in different garden flower pots with the necessary care:
- Rhododendron and Azalea.
It is very beautiful, and its blooming falls on winter time, when many house plants rest and do not blossom, but you really want bright colors. Therefore, azaleas are readily bought and often given in winter instead of a festive bouquet.
- In nature it is a powerful vine, shrub or small tree. There are varieties that have at the same time two colors or change their color during flowering, so home flowers of bougainvillea will be a wonderful decoration for any room.
It is one of the most common and fast-growing indoor blooming lianas with beautiful leaves in the form of a heart . Having acquired an adult plant, which is quite expensive, you can soon see fluffy velvety flowers collected in a spherical umbrella.
- Room spathiphyllum, received as a gift, will bring grace in the personal sphere and long-awaited female happiness. It’s best to give it to a young woman whom he will surely bring good luck to, unmarried – will help find your love. This beautiful tropical plant is also called the “White Sail”, thanks to its unusual flowers, like sails.
- Narrow long oleander leaves are similar in shape to willow leaves. Oleander flowers produce a pleasant and strong aroma, but with abundant flowering, it is best not to leave the plant overnight in a bedroom.
- This flower is grown not only in the room, but also on the balconies, loggias, outside window boxes, gardens, even in the open ground
- Epiphytes or air orchids are the largest group, but there are terrestrial species and saprophytes. There are more than hundreds of varieties and hybrids of this flower . At present, phalaenopsis has gained wide popularity among florists; it is on the site Getpotted.com.
- This is a representative of the family cactus. The genus contains about 200 bizarre species, differing in the range of growth, size and shape of the plants. You can be grown it in any types of garden flower pots. The prickly pears are large single, very spectacular flowers, usually yellow, red and yellow-orange.
- Many kinds of Kalanchoe are actively used in indoor floriculture, because they are unpretentious in their care, also have medicinal properties. if the soil is completely dry, the plant will continue to grow painlessly, feeding moisture from the air.
- Dionaea muscipula.
It is unique kinds of predatory plants of the Droseraceae family. This is a small herbaceous plant with a rosette of 4-7 leaves that grow from a short underground stalk. The plant feeds on various insects and spiders, sometimes slugs.
It should be remembered that your plants need good care, since they find it difficult to adapt to life outside natural conditions. Read the information about caring for your plants and they will fill your home with harmony and joy. Each plant has its own characteristics and preferences. Create for them the necessary conditions to make them feel comfortable.
Since ancient times, when decorating weddings, special attention has been paid to flowers. With the help of beautiful and fragrant living decorations, you can easily emphasize the solemnity of the moment; give a lot of pleasant emotions to the newlyweds and their guests. Flowers are also used to create a bride’s hairstyle, and making a bouquet of a future wife can be called a separate direction in floristry.
When choosing a floral work for the bride, it is important to take into account a lot of nuances. This is the style of the celebration, and the color, the style of the dress, and the decoration of the event. A bouquet for the bride in different countries is considered a ritual attribute, with which many traditions, superstitions are associated.
A bouquet of the bride in the East
- In China, from ancient times, wedding bouquets were performed in red tones. Flowers of red color were used for decor, hairdressing, dresses.
- In Japan, brides often do not have a separate bouquet. In their hands, they keep painted fans with floral drawings. A fresh chrysanthemum is used to decorate the hair.
- In India, to design a bouquet of a bride and generally a wedding celebration in general, choose lotuses. Often this flower is the center of the composition; it can be supplemented with roses in the bouquet.
Wedding bouquet in Europe and tradition
Previously, the floristic composition for the bride was collected from herbs. It is believed that the tradition of making a bouquet of flowers from the bride was introduced by Queen Victoria. At the behest of this monarch, the flowers of the orange tree again began to add to the bouquet.
Historians say that around the time of the Victorian era roses were considered the main flower of love, romance. In this historical period, the brides began to hand over their bouquets to friends. This was done so that the couple could not bring damage.
In the Middle Ages in Britain, marigold flowers were often added to the bridal bouquets. And the petals of roses were used to shatter the newlyweds on their way to church so that their marriage was happy.
As for other European countries, there are some traditions associated with the bouquet of the bride:
- In Spain in the wedding bouquet necessarily add orange flowers. They are also used to decorate the bride’s hairstyle because this color is recognized as the color of luck;
- In Greece in ancient times, the bridal bouquet included spices, fragrant herbs to scare off evil spirits. For decoration, ivy could be used – a sign of the girl’s love for the boy. Later in the bouquets, Greek flowers were added orange, emphasizing the innocence of the future wife;
- In the Scandinavian countries, the girls who were getting married also used fragrant herbs to dress up. It was believed that these components will bring the husband-Viking luck in the wanderings.
- In Austria in the past instead of bouquets wreaths were used from myrtle, it is a symbol of a happy marriage.
According to the unspoken rule of floristic art, the wedding bouquet is decorated in light colors: they emphasize the bride’s innocence
Traditions of wedding bouquets in America
Wedding bouquet of the bride first started throwing unmarried girlfriends in the USA. A very beautiful ceremony was accompanied by a wish to meet a loved one lucky woman who will catch flowers. Today, more often than not, the bride passes on to her guests not her own bouquet, but a bouquet double. As a rule, it looks like a real wedding bouquet.
By the way, throwing flowers future wife can be original. For example, she can choose the hostess of the wedding attribute with the help of an attraction, comic contest or competition.
The effective tradition of throwing a wedding bouquet to bridesmaids originated in America, today it is popular in many countries
Bouquet for a wedding in Russia
Few people know that in Russia there was a similar wedding ceremony. According to ancient traditions, unmarried guests at the end of the evening gathered in a circle in the center of which was the bride. She was blindfolded, after which the friends of the happy bride began to dance. When the dance stopped, flowers were received by the girl who was closest to the bride.
In general, the Slavs did not have a traditional wedding bouquet. He was replaced by a flower wreath. It is a symbol of the sun, which promises a happy and long life to the newlyweds. Most often, for wreaths of a wreath of the bride used healing flowers and herbs, each plant had its own significance. For example, fresh chamomile symbolized strong love and the spikelets of rye – wealth.
The secret tradition in many countries is the use of colors of light and delicate shades when drawing up a wedding bouquet. However, modern brides can show fancy when choosing the model and materials of the future bouquet. It is important only that the work created by the florists pleases the eye and harmonizes with the image of the girl.
Packing for flowers can be very different, as are the ways of decorating a composition. It does not matter why flowers are presented as a gift, where it is more important to provide a presentable bouquet and to impress the recipient because the beauty of a flower arrangement or a bouquet is often judged on the packaging.
Materials for the production of flower packaging
Packing for the decoration of bouquets can be both synthetic and natural. The first type includes:
- Transparent film – monophonic or ornamented with various shades. The most budgetary and common material for registration;
- Organza – this fabric of bright colors is used, as a rule, for the winding of stalks.
- Artificial mesh – a variety of color and shape of the material. It can be monophonic, decorated with lurex, etc. It often goes hand-in-hand with feeling, since it combines well with it. Excellent hold the form and can act as an independent element of the decor;
Of the natural materials for packaging flowers can be identified such solutions:
- Felt – light and soft, it seems to have been created for the decoration of a scattering of flowers. Can be both monophonic and decorated print;
- Sisal is obtained from the leaves of the agave and is used mainly for the connection of plants with short or medium length stems. Whimsical in terms of selecting a color solution, so to prevent visual “heavier” bouquet, florists use the packaging of those shades that occur in the composition;
- Jute mesh and fiber – a package with a natural appearance, as if created for registration of a status business bouquet. It gives the composition austerity and presentability.
What are the ribbons of flowers?
Tapes in floristry can have a different width, density, and color. In addition, amazes and abundance of materials of manufacture: there are satin and polypropylene, metalized, imitation sheet aspidistra, etc. Often they are additionally decorated with strips of lurex and other threads, paillettes, beads.
In any case, the ribbon is selected depending on the type of colors used and the theme of the celebration. So, romantic bouquets can be supplemented with a lace ribbon.
Ways of packing a bouquet
Today, florists give preference to everything natural, and the real trend of recent times is naturalness and minimalism. Ordinary paper, ribbon or organza can emphasize the freshness of field or garden flowers. And in jute mesh pack tulips or a bouquet of royal roses.
The simplest version of design – a wide satin ribbon girdles the stems in 2-3 girths or completely drape the bottom of the bouquet. You can use a combination of several packaging materials, for example, lace with thick paper or artificial mesh with felt.
Thanks to the imagination of the masters of the most familiar materials for the packaging of flowers, real works of art are created!
To maintain concentration and serenity in the office everyone has their own methods. Some people listen to music to get away from the noise; there are those who put the pens and pencils always perfectly aligned in the same position because this helps to relax. There are some who relies on Feng-Shui, the ancient art geomantic Taoist Chinese, helps to achieve the best possible result in terms of harmony, friendliness and productivity in the office. Read more
A home renovation can be a major undertaking in a variety of ways. Obviously, the renovation work itself will be a major chore that will need to be handled by experienced professionals. However, a homeowner will also need to do his or her part in order to get their home ready to be renovated. A contractor cannot simply show up at a house and get started on a project. The home will need to be properly prepped to ensure that the renovation project goes off without a hitch. Here are of few of the things that you will need to do in order to prepare for your home to be renovated. Read more
JEE (Main) Physics Syllabus:
UNIT 1: Physics and Measurement
Physics, technology and society, S I units, Fundamental and derived units. Least count, accuracy and precision of measuring instruments, Errors in measurement, Significant figures. Dimensions of Physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
UNIT 2: Kinematics
Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position- time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion. Scalars and Vectors, Vector addition and Subtraction, Zero Vector, Scalar and Vector products, Unit Vector, Resolution of a Vector. Relative Velocity, Motion in a plane, Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion.
UNIT 3: Laws of Motion
Force and Inertia, Newton’s First Law of motion; Momentum, Newton’s Second Law of motion; Impulse; Newton’s Third Law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications, Equilibrium of concurrent forces.
Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction.
Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force and its applications.
UNIT 4: Work, Energy and Power
Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, work energy theorem, power.
Potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and non-conservative forces; Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
UNIT 5: Rotational Motion
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, Centre of mass of a rigid body; Basic concepts of rotational motion; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum and its applications; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. Rigid body rotation, equations of rotational motion.
UNIT 6: Gravitation
The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.
UNIT 7: Properties of Solids and Liquids
Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s Law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications. Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number. Bernoulli’s principle and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension – drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state, latent heat. Heat transfer- conduction, convection and radiation, Newton’s law of cooling.
UNIT 8: Thermodynamics
Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, concept of temperature. Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot engine and its efficiency.
UNIT 9: Kinetic Theory of Gases
Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.Kinetic theory of gases – assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature: rms speed of gas molecules; Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy,applications to specific heat capacities of gases; Mean free path, Avogadro’s number.
UNIT 10: Oscillations and Waves
Periodic motion – period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring -restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. – kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum – derivation of expression for its time period; Free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance.
Wave motion: Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of a wave. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect in sound
UNIT 11: Electrostatics
Electric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-forces between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field: Electric field due to a point charge, Electric field lines, Electric dipole, Electric field due to a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
Electric flux, Gauss’s law and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, Energy stored in a capacitor.
UNIT 12: Current Electricity
Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohm’s law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of different materials, V-I characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors, Electrical energy and power, Electrical resistivity, Colour code for resistors; Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance.
Electric Cell and its Internal resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s Laws and their applications. Wheatstone bridge, Metre bridge. Potentiometer – principle and its applications.
UNIT 13: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field: Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Moving coil galvanometer, its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment: Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro- magnetic substances.
Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent magnets.
UNIT 14: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Electromagnetic induction: Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance; Quality factor, power in AC circuits, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.
UNIT 15: Electromagnetic Waves
Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics: Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays): Applications of e.m. waves.
UNIT 16: Optics
Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula, Total internal reflection and its applications, Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism, Lens Formula, Magnification, Power of a Lens, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope and Astronomical Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Wave optics: wavefront and Huygens’ principle, Laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes, Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.
UNIT 17: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Dual nature of radiation: Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation; particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particle, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment.
UNIT 18: Atoms and Nuclei
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion.
UNIT 19: Electronic Devices
Semiconductors; semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.
UNIT 20: Communication Systems
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation, Need for modulation, Amplitude and Frequency Modulation, Bandwidth of signals, Bandwidth of Transmission medium, Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only)
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UNIT 21: Experimental Skills
1. Familiarity with the basic approach and observations of the experiments and activities:
2. Vernier callipers – its use to measure internal and external diameter and depth of a vessel.
3. Screw gauge-its use to determine thickness/diameter of thin sheet/wire.
4. Simple Pendulum-dissipation of energy by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time.
5. Metre Scale – mass of a given object by principle of moments.
6. Young’s modulus of elasticity of the material of a metallic wire.
7. Surface tension of water by capillary rise and effect of detergents.
8. Co-efficient of Viscosity of a given viscous liquid by measuring terminal velocity of a given spherical body.
9. Plotting a cooling curve for the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time.
10. Speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube.
11. Specific heat capacity of a given (i) solid and (ii) liquid by method of mixtures.
12. Resistivity of the material of a given wire using metre bridge.
13. Resistance of a given wire using Ohm’s law.
14. Potentiometer – (i) Comparison of emf of two primary cells. (ii) Determination of internal resistance of a cell.
15. Resistance and figure of merit of a galvanometer by half deflection method.
16. Focal length of: (i) Convex mirror (ii) Concave mirror, and (iii) Convex lens using parallax method.
17. Plot of angle of deviation vs angle of incidence for a triangular prism.
18. Refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
19. Characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward and reverse bias.
20. Characteristic curves of a Zener diode and finding reverse breakdown voltage.
21. Characteristic curves of a transistor and finding current gain and voltage gain.
22. Identification of Diode, LED, Transistor, IC, Resistor, Capacitor from mixed collection of such items.
23. Using multimeter to: (i) Identify base of a transistor (ii) Distinguish between npn and pnp type transistor (iii) See the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED. (iv) Check the correctness or otherwise of a given electronic component (diode, transistor or IC).